Fundamentals of communication systems /

Fundamentals of communication systems /
Proakis, John G.
Wentworth Institute of Technology
Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction -- 1.1.Historical Review -- 1.2.Elements of an Electrical Communication System -- 1.2.1.Digital Communication System -- 1.2.2.Early Work in Digital Communications -- 1.3.Communication Channels and Their Characteristics -- 1.4.Mathematical Models for Communication Channels -- 1.5.Summary and Further Reading -- 2.Signals and Linear Systems -- 2.1.Basic Concepts -- 2.1.1.Basic Operations on Signals -- 2.1.2.Classification of Signals -- 2.1.3.Some Important Signals and Their Properties -- 2.1.4.Classification of Systems -- 2.1.5.Analysis of LTI Systems in the Time Domain -- 2.2.Fourier Series -- 2.2.1.Fourier Series and Its Properties -- 2.2.2.Response of LTI Systems to Periodic Signals -- 2.2.3.Parseval's Relation -- 2.3.Fourier Transform -- 2.3.1.From Fourier Series to Fourier Transforms -- 2.3.2.Basic Properties of the Fourier Transform -- 2.3.3.Fourier Transform for Periodic Signals -- 2.3.4.Transmission over LTI Systems -- 2.4.Filter Design -- 2.5.Power and Energy -- 2.5.1.Energy-Type Signals -- 2.5.2.Power-Type Signals -- 2.6.Hilbert Transform and Its Properties -- 2.7.Lowpass and Bandpass Signals -- 2.8.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 3.Amplitude Modulation -- 3.1.Introduction to Modulation -- 3.2.Amplitude Modulation -- 3.2.1.Double-Sideband Suppressed-Carrier AM -- 3.2.2.Conventional Amplitude Modulation -- 3.2.3.Single-Sideband AM -- 3.2.4.Vestigial-Sideband AM -- 3.3.Implementation of Amplitude Modulators and Demodulators -- 3.4.Signal Multiplexing -- 3.4.1.Frequency-Division Multiplexing -- 3.4.2.Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing -- 3.5.AM Radio Broadcasting -- 3.6.Summary and Further Reading -- Appendix 3A Derivation of the Expression for SSB-AM Signals -- Problems -- 4.Angle Modulation -- 4.1.Representation of FM and PM Signals -- 4.2.Spectral Characteristics of Angle-Modulated Signals -- 4.2.1.Angle Modulation by a Sinusoidal Signal -- 4.2.2.Angle Modulation by an Arbitrary Message Signal -- 4.3.Implementation of Angle Modulators and Demodulators -- 4.4.FM Radio Broadcasting -- 4.5.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 5.Probability and Random Processes -- 5.1.Review of Probability and Random Variables -- 5.1.1.Sample Space, Events, and Probability -- 5.1.2.Conditional Probability -- 5.1.3.Random Variables -- 5.1.4.Functions of a Random Variable -- 5.1.5.Multiple Random Variables -- 5.1.6.Sums of Random Variables -- 5.2.Random Processes: Basic Concepts -- 5.2.1.Statistical Averages -- 5.2.2.Wide-Sense Stationary Processes -- 5.2.3.Multiple Random Processes -- 5.2.4.Random Processes and Linear Systems -- 5.2.5.Power Spectral Density of Stationary Processes -- 5.2.6.Power Spectral Density of a Sum Process -- 5.3.Gaussian and White Processes -- 5.3.1.Gaussian Processes -- 5.3.2.White Processes -- 5.3.3.Filtered Noise Processes -- 5.4.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 6.Effect Of Noise On Analog Communication Systems -- 6.1.Effect of Noise on Amplitude Modulation Systems -- 6.1.1.Effect of Noise on a Baseband System -- 6.1.2.Effect of Noise on DSB-SC AM -- 6.1.3.Effect of Noise on SSB AM -- 6.1.4.Effect of Noise on Conventional AM -- 6.2.Effect of Noise on Angle Modulation -- 6.2.1.Threshold Effect in Angle Modulation -- 6.2.2.Preemphasis and Deemphasis Filtering for FM -- 6.3.Comparison of Analog-Modulation Systems -- 6.4.Effects of Transmission Losses and Noise in Analog Communication Systems -- 6.4.1.Characterization of Thermal Noise Sources -- 6.4.2.Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure -- 6.4.3.Transmission Losses -- 6.4.4.Repeaters for Signal Transmission -- 6.5.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 7.Analog-To-Digital Conversion -- 7.1.Sampling of Signals and Signal Reconstruction from Samples -- 7.1.1.The Sampling Theorem -- 7.2.Quantization -- 7.2.1.Scalar Quantization -- 7.2.2.Vector Quantization -- 7.3.Encoding -- 7.4.Waveform Coding -- 7.4.1.Pulse Code Modulation -- 7.4.2.Differential Pulse Code Modulation -- 7.4.3.Delta Modulation -- 7.5.Analysis-Synthesis Techniques -- 7.6.Digital Audio Transmission and Digital Audio Recording -- 7.6.1.Digital Audio in Telephone Transmission Systems -- 7.6.2.Digital Audio Recording -- 7.7.The JPEG Image-Coding Standard -- 7.8.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 8.Digital Modulation Methods in an Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel -- 8.1.Geometric Representation of Signal Waveforms -- 8.2.Binary Modulation Schemes -- 8.2.1.Binary Antipodal Signaling -- 8.2.2.Binary Orthogonal Signaling -- 8.3.Optimum Receiver for Binary Modulated Signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise -- 8.3.1.Correlation-Type Demodulator -- 8.3.2.Matched-Filter-Type Demodulator -- 8.3.3.The Performance of the Optimum Detector for Binary Signals -- 8.4.M-ary Digital Modulation -- 8.4.1.The Optimum Receiver for M-ary Signals in AWGN -- 8.4.2.A Union Bound on the Probability of Error -- 8.5.M-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation -- 8.5.1.Carrier-Modulated PAM for Bandpass Channels (M-ary ASK) -- 8.5.2.Demodulation and Detection of Amplitude-Modulated PAM Signals -- 8.5.3.Probability of Error for M-ary PAM -- 8.6.Phase-Shift Keying -- 8.6.1.Geometric Representation of PSK Signals -- 8.6.2.Demodulation and Detection of PSK Signals -- 8.6.3.Probability of Error for Phase-Coherent PSK Modulation -- 8.6.4.Differential Phase Encoding and Differential Phase Modulation and Demodulation -- 8.6.5.Probability of Error for DPSK -- 8.7.Quadrature Amplitude-Modulated Digital Signals -- 8.7.1.Geometric Representation of QAM Signals -- 8.7.2.Demodulation and Detection of QAM Signals -- 8.7.3.Probability of Error for QAM -- 8.8.Carrier-Phase Estimation -- 8.8.1.The Phase-Locked Loop -- 8.8.2.The Costas Loop -- 8.8.3.Carrier-Phase Estimation for PAM -- 8.8.4.Carrier-Phase Estimation for PSK -- 8.8.5.Carrier-Phase Estimation for QAM -- 8.9.Symbol Synchronization -- 8.9.1.Early-Late Gate Synchronizers -- 8.9.2.Minimum Mean Square Error Method -- 8.9.3.Maximum-Likelihood Method -- 8.9.4.Spectral-Line Method -- 8.9.5.Symbol Synchronization for Carrier-Modulated Signals -- 8.10.Regenerative Repeaters -- 8.11.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 9.Multidimensional Digital Modulation -- 9.1.M-ary Orthogonal Signals -- 9.1.1.Probability of Error for M-ary Orthogonal Signals -- 9.1.2.A Union Bound on the Error Probability of M-ary Orthogonal Signals -- 9.2.Biorthogonal Signals -- 9.2.1.Probability of Error for M-ary Biorthogonal Signals -- 9.3.Simplex Signals -- 9.3.1.Probability of Error for M-ary Simplex Signals -- 9.4.Binary-Coded Signals -- 9.4.1.Probability of Error for Binary-Coded Signals -- 9.5.Frequency-Shift Keying -- 9.5.1.Demodulation of M-ary FSK -- 9.5.2.Optimum Detector for Noncoherent Binary FSK -- 9.5.3.Probability of Error for Noncoherent Detection of M-ary FSK -- 9.6.Modulation Systems with Memory -- 9.6.1.Continuous-Phase FSK -- 9.6.2.Spectral Characteristics of CPFSK Signals -- 9.7.Comparison of Modulation Methods -- 9.8.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 10.Digital Transmission Through Bandlimited Awgn Channels -- 10.1.Characterization of Bandlimited Channels and Signal Distortion -- 10.1.1.Intersymbol Interference in Signal Transmission -- 10.1.2.Digital Transmission through Bandlimited Bandpass Channels -- 10.2.The Power Spectrum of Digitally Modulated Signals -- 10.3.Signal Design for Bandlimited Channels -- 10.3.1.Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero ISI-The Nyquist Criterion -- 10.3.2.Design of Bandlimited Signals with Controlled ISI-Partial-Response Signals -- 10.4.Detection of Partial-Response Signals -- 10.4.1.Symbol-by-Symbol Detection -- 10.4.2.Probability of Error for Symbol-by-Symbol Detection -- 10.4.3.Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detection of Partial-Response Signals -- 10.4.4.Error Probability of the Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detector -- 10.5.System Design in the Presence of Channel Distortion -- 10.5.1.Design of Transmitting and Receiving Filters for a Known Channel -- 10.5.2.Channel Equalization -- 10.6.Summary and Further Reading -- Appendix 10A Power Spectrum of Modulated Signals -- 10A.1.The Power Spectrum of the Baseband Signal -- 10A.2.The Power Spectrum of the Carrier Modulated Signals -- Problems -- 11.Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM -- 11.1.Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing -- 11.2.Modulation and Demodulation in an OFDM System -- 11.3.An OFDM System Implemented via the FFT Algorithm -- 11.4.Spectral Characteristics of OFDM Signals -- 11.5.Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDM Systems -- 11.6.Applications of OFDM -- 11.6.1.Digital Subscriber Lines -- 11.6.2.Wireless LANs -- 11.6.3.Digital Audio Broadcasting -- 11.7.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 12.An Introduction To Information Theory -- 12.1.Modeling Information Sources -- 12.1.1.Measure of Information -- 12.1.2.Joint and Conditional Entropy -- 12.1.3.Mutual Information -- 12.1.4.Differential Entropy -- 12.2.The Source Coding Theorem -- 12.3.Source Coding Algorithms -- 12.3.1.The Huffman Source Coding Algorithm -- 12.3.2.The Lempel-Ziv Source Coding Algorithm -- 12.4.Modeling of Communication Channels -- 12.5.Channel Capacity -- 12.5.1.Gaussian Channel Capacity -- 12.6.Bounds on Communication -- 12.7.Summary and Further Reading -- Problems -- 13.Coding For Reliable Communications -- 13.1.The Promise of Coding -- 13.2.Linear Block Codes -- 13.2.1.Decoding and Performance of Linear Block Codes -- 13.2.2.Some Important Linear Block Codes -- 13.2.3.Error Detection versus Error Correction -- 13.2.4.Burst-Error-Correcting Codes -- 13.3.Convolutional Codes -- 13.3.1.Basic Properties of Convolutional Codes -- 13.3.2.Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Convolutional Codes-The Viterbi Algorithm -- 13.3.3.Other Decoding Algorithms for Convolutional Codes -- 13.3.4.Bounds on the Error Probability of Convolutional Codes -- 13.4.Good Codes Based on Combination of Simple Codes -- 13.4.1.Product Codes -- 13.4.2.Concatenated Codes -- 13.5.Turbo Codes and Iterative Decoding --

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